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White matter includes all of the nerves, and much of the interior of the brain and spinal cord.
Grey matter is found in clusters of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and in cortical layers that line their surfaces.
White matter is composed mainly of myelinated axons, and takes its color from the myelin.In vertebrate species it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body.Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent.Recent findings indicate that glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, serve as important resident immune cells within the central nervous system.The vertebrate nervous system can also be divided into areas called grey matter ("gray matter" in American spelling) and white matter.